Nano Technology of Zeolite Mineral

 

NANO TECHNOLOGY OF ZEOLITE MINERAL FOR SLOW RELEASE NITROGEN OF UREA FERTILIZER ON VERTISOLS PADDY SOIL


M. Al-Jabri
Indonesian Soil Research Institute, Bogor, Indonesia
e-mail: muhammad_aljabri46@yahoo.co.id


A Series Of experiments aimed to study the effect of zeolite as soil conditioner to the nitrogen (N) uptake, and to the dry rice grain yield in the greenhouse and the field condition have been done. The zeolites in this research was zeolite with trade mark Zeolite Kap Kan (ZKK). The results show that the higher addition of ZKK zeolite, the higher N concentration was observed. The highest N concentration (2.96%) was obtained at dosage of 1 ton ZKK ha1 . The weight of dry rice grain yield in the greenhouse increased with the addition of zeolite. Similar tendency was observed when zeolite was used as soil conditioner in field. 6.52 ton ha1 of dry rice grain has been reached at the ziolite addition of 2 ton ZKK ha-1.

Keywords: Slow Release, Ammonia, Zeolite, Paddy soils; Vertisols.

zeolite
Nano Technology of  Zeolite Minera


NANO TECHNOLOGY 

Four years succesion, 2005 – 2009, rice production in Indonesia has increased because of fertilizer subsidization, irrigation improvement, and using of high yielding varieties. Since 2007, Indonesia success to reach rice self sufficient for the second time and have positively effect to the increasing farmer income. Rice production year 2007 – 2008 was increased from 57.16 million tons in 2007 become 60.33 million tons in year 2008, its mean that has happened the increased rice production more or less 3.69% or surplus 3.17 million tons dry grain yield. Dry grain yield year 2009 with target 63.5 million tons, till Juny 2009 was 63.8 million tons or reach out for 100.5% from target year 2009. In the coming year, it difficult to increase dry grain yield without contribution of technology innovations such as the application of zeolite as soil conditioner.

In other hands, the use of anorganic fertilizer such as urea for long time is not efficient due to the high dosage, i.e. more than 300 kg ha-1, and especially the applied urea fertizer is not mixed well into the soil up to 20 cm in deep, thus the production cost will be very expensive. The farmer usually spread the urea fertilizer in upper layer of the soil only, sothat the fertilizer is not mixed well into the soil as deep as 20 cm. Consequently, many NH4 + ion (about 70%) are lost through leaching both horizontally and vertically,as well as the denitrification and the volatilization of ammonia (NH3).

Practically, the use of urea fertilizer result in relatively low NH4 + efficiency uptake, about 30%. However, the NH4 + uptake efficiency can be increased with the technology innovation using zeolite as soil conditioner. It is because of zeolite has unique cationic exchange, adsorption, hydration-dehydration, and catalytic properties. Technically, the zeolite can be applied by following several methods, e.g. (1) the zeolite can be directly applied to the soil and followed by urea fertilizer; (2) the urea fertilizer is mixed with zeolite in a proportional dosage (70% urea : 30% zeolite), then is granulated by granulator and applied to the soil; (3) The zeolite is formulated with urea fertilizer an other nutirents proportionally, i.e. the zeolite is mixed with urea, compost of animal feces or rice straw compost, and other nutrient from anorganic fertilizer (P, S, Zn, and Cu) in the form pellet.

Nano Technology of  Zeolite Mineral

Zeolite have prompted their use in recent years in a wide variety of agricultural processes as soil conditioner, slowly released fertilizer, heavy metal (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn) trapper, dietary supplements in animal nutrition, carrier of insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, and deodorizers and moisture-control agents for animal manure[1]. Zeolite as soil conditioner is suggested to improve the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of soil [2,3,4]

The typical zeolite characteristics are three-dimensional crystal structure having abilities to hydrate and dehydrate reversibly and to exchange some of their constituent cations. When urea fertilizer is added together with zeolite into the paddy soils, NH4 + cations will be trapped temporarily in the zeolite pores and then it is slowly released to be taken up by the crop root. Therefore, the zeolite are playing the role for holding NH4 + cations, result in the increasing of the efficiency of NH4 + cations uptaken. It was reported that urea fertilizer in the soil could be suppressed by making slow release fertilizer (SRF) which is made from mix up urea and zeolite with ratio 70% urea : 30% zeolite, sothat the used of urea fertilizer could be saved up to 30% [5]. Comparing to the other soil conditioner (such as lime and gypsum), zeolite was stable and the tendency of its residual effect in the soil relatively higher.

The amount of NH4 + cations from urea fertilizer enter the porous space of zeolite structure in relation to ion-exchange depends on a number of other factors: (i) framework topology (channel configuration and dimensions), (ii) size and shape (polarizability) of the ions, (iii) charge density in the channels and cages, (iv) valency and charge density of the ions, and (v) electrolyte composition and concentration in the external solution[6]. Based on XRD determination, more than 50% of zeolites are dominated by clynoptilolite and modernite structure which are the higher cation exchangeable capacity (CEC) and the higher ion-exchangeable. Therefore the NH4 + cations from urea fertilizer can enter the porous space of zeolite. The NH4 + cations in the porous zeolite will be slowly released to be taken up by the root crop.

The result of zeolite affectivities test demonstrated that zeolite having trade mark ZKK with 6 ton ha-1 dosage could increase the yield of dry rice grain almost 20%. That is the average yield of dry rice grain without zeolite was 61.22 gram per pot, while the dry rice grain yield with zeolite was 73.30 gram per pot [7]. Similarly, zeolite having trade mark ZKK with 800 kg ha-1 dosages were mixed with compost of animal feces could increase the corn dry grain yield 8.44 ton ha-1 higher than without ZKK with the corn dry grain yield 5.65 ton ha-1[8]. The implementation of zeolite and organic fertilizer is reasonable as effort for improving soil degradation.

The objectives of this research were: (1) to study the effect of zeolite to the nitrogen (N) upatake in the greenhouse condition; (2) to study the efect nanotechnology of zeolite to the dry rice grain yield in the greenhose condition; (3) to study the effect zeolite to the dry rice grain yield in the field condition. M

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